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A Chronology of Tuvalu

Tuvalu Inaba-10. Photo Credit: INABA Tomoaki (cc-by-2.0)

Tuvalu Inaba-10. Photo Credit: INABA Tomoaki (cc-by-2.0)

c. 2000 BC-14th Century AD: The islands of Tuvalu are colonized by Polynesians.

AD 1568 and 1595: The Spaniard Alvaro Medana sights Tuvalu’s Nui and Niulakita islands on two separate expeditions.

1819: A British vessel visits Nukufetau and Funafuti. The latter is named after the ship’s owner, British MP Edward Ellice. The name "Ellice Islands" is then applied to the island group as a whole.

1850-75: Islanders are captured by slave traders or other raiders, leading to a reduction in the population.

1877: The United Kingdom establishes the Western Pacific High Commission, which has its headquarters in Fiji, and the Ellice Islands and other archipelagos are placed under its jurisdiction.

1892: A British protectorate is declared over the Ellice Islands; the Ellice Islands are then linked administratively with the Gilbert Islands (now Kiribati).

1916: The Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony (GEIC) is formed under British control.

1942-43: During the Japanese occupation of the Gilbert Islands in WWII, the administration of the GEIC is moved to Funafuti in the Ellice Islands. U.S. troops arrive on the Ellice Islands during this period and build airbases on the islands of Funafuti, Nanumea, and Nukufetau.

August 1974: At a referendum held in the Ellice Islands, over 90% of voters favor separation from the Gilbert Islands.

October 1975: The Ellice Islands become a separate British dependency under the name Tuvalu. The Deputy Governor of the GEIC takes office as Her Majesty’s Commissioner for Tuvalu. The Tuvalu House of Assembly is established, and the eight representatives of the assembly elect Toaripi Lauti as Chief Minister.

January 1976: Tuvalu is formally separated from the Gilbert Islands.

29 August 1977: Tuvalu’s first separate general election is held.

1 October 1978: Tuvalu achieves independence. Toaripi Lauti is appointed Prime Minister, Sir Fiatau Penitala Teo becomes Governor-General, and the House of Assembly is renamed the Parliament.

17 September 1981: Dr. Tomasi Puapua is elected Prime Minister.

September 1985: Puapua is re-elected Prime Minister.

February 1986: During a poll, a majority of Tuvalu citizens decide that the nation should remain an independent constitutional monarchy and not become a republic.

1 March 1986: Sir Tupua Leupena, a former Speaker of Parliament, is appointed Governor-General.

1987: Britain, New Zealand, and Australia establish the Tuvalu Trust Fund to provide development aid. Contributions are also provided by South Korea and Japan.

1989: The UN lists Tuvalu as one of a number of island groups most likely to disappear in the 21st century because of global warming and rising sea levels.

27 September 1989: At a general election, supporters of PM Dr. Tomasi Puapua are defeated and Bikenibeu Paeniu is elected Prime Minister the following month.

1 October 1990: Sir Toaripi Lauti succeeds Sir Tupua Leupena as Governor-General.

1 December 1993: Sir Tomu Sione becomes Governor-General.

10 December 1993: Following a general election held in November, Kamuta Latasi is elected Prime Minister, defeating the incumbent Bikenibeu Paeniu.

21 June 1994: Sir Tulaga Manuella becomes Governor-General.

23 December 1996: Following a parliamentary motion of no confidence, Kamuta Latasi is replaced by Bikenibeu Paeniu and a new Cabinet is appointed.

1998: Tuvalu leases its “900” telephone lines to a foreign company.

Office of Tuvalu Telecom. Photo Credit: lirneasia (cc-by-2.0)

Office of Tuvalu Telecom. Photo Credit: lirneasia (cc-by-2.0)

26 March 1998: A general election is held, during which five of the 12 members of the previous Parliament are re-elected. Bikenibeu Paeniu is reappointed Prime Minister by the newly elected Parliament.

26 June 1998: Sir Tomasi Puapua becomes Governor-General.

April 1999: Bikenibeu Paeniu resigns as Prime Minister after losing a parliamentary vote of confidence. Later that month, Ionatana Ionatana, formerly Minister for Health, Education and Culture, Women and Community Affairs, becomes Prime Minister.

February 2000: Tuvalu leases the country’s national Internet suffix “.tv” to a U.S. company.

5 September 2000: Tuvalu is admitted to the UN.

8 December 2000: Following the death of Ionatana Ionatana, Deputy Prime Minister Lagitupu Tuilimu is appointed as interim Prime Minister.

24 February 2001: The Minister for Internal Affairs and Rural and Urban Development, Faimalaga Luka, is elected Prime Minister, and assumes responsibility for foreign affairs, finance and economic planning, and trade and planning.

March 2001: Tuvalu says it will take legal action, along with Kiribati and the Maldives, against the United States for its refusal to sign the Kyoto Protocol.

October 2001: New Zealand offers to provide assistance in the resettling of islanders threatened by rising sea levels as a consequence of climate change.

Tuvalu Meteorology Service. Photo Credit: Davidarfonjones (cc-by-sa3.0; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/legalcode)

Tuvalu Meteorology Service. Photo Credit: Davidarfonjones (cc-by-sa3.0; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/legalcode)

December 2001: The Australian government’s overseas aid program commissions a land and sea-level monitoring station in Tuvalu.

14 December 2001: Koloa Talake becomes Prime Minister.

24 August 2002: Saufatu Sopoanga becomes Prime Minister.

9 September 2003: Faimalaga Luka becomes Governor-General.

27 August 2004: Sopoanga fails to win a vote of confidence; Maatia Toafa is elected Prime Minister by parliament.

15 April 2005: Sir Filoimea Telito is sworn in as Governor-General.

14 August 2006: Apisai Ielemia is elected Prime Minister.

December 2009: Tuvalu rejects the Copenhagen climate pact as inadequate.

19 March 2010: Sir Kamuta Latasi becomes acting Governor-General.

16 April 2010: Sir Iakoba Italeli becomes Governor-General.

24 June 2010: Tuvalu becomes the 187th member of the IMF and the World Bank.

29 September 2010: Maatia Toafa is elected Prime Minister.

24 December 2010: Maatia Toafa is replaced by Willy Telavi.

October 2011: The Government of Tuvalu declares a state of emergency over water shortages and asks for international help to replace broken desalination machinery and provide permanent water tanks.

1 August 2013: The Governor-General fires Prime Minister Willy Telavi over his failure to convene parliament for eight months and appoints opposition leader Enele Sopoaga to succeed him.

5 August 2013: Enele Sopoaga is sworn in as Prime Minister.

March 2014: Tuvalu withdraws its recognition of the Georgian breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.

December 2014: Tuvalu establishes diplomatic relations with Lithuania.

10 March 2015: Tuvalu is devastated by tidal surges caused by Tropical Cyclone Pam, which displaces a large portion of the country’s population. A State of Emergency is declared.

26 March 2015: Tuvalu establishes diplomatic relations with Saudi Arabia.

31 March 2015: Tuvalu holds national elections after which 12 of 15 parliamentarians from the former government remain in power.

10 April 2015: Tuvalu’s new Cabinet is sworn in with H.E. Enele Sosene Sopoaga returning as Prime Minister.

4 May 2015: Tuvalu establishes diplomatic relations with Poland.

 

Language: English / Chinese

吐瓦魯歷史年表

Tuvalu Inaba-10. Photo Credit: INABA Tomoaki (cc-by-2.0)

Tuvalu Inaba-10. Photo Credit: INABA Tomoaki (cc-by-2.0)

公元前2000年至公元14世紀:玻里尼西亞人遷到吐瓦魯群島。

1568年與1595年:西班牙航海家門達尼亞發現吐瓦魯的Nui與Niulakita島嶼。

1819年:一支英國船隊發現吐瓦魯的Nukufetau與富那富提島嶼,並以船主(即英國國會議員Edward Ellice)之名將富那富提命名為埃利斯群島;其後,全國亦被命名埃利斯群島。

1850-75年:由於奴隸販子與其他入侵者大量俘虜島民,島嶼原住人口急劇下降。

1877年:英國建立英國駐西太平洋高級專員公署,總部在斐濟。埃利斯群島與其他群島歸該公署管理。

1892年:英國將埃利斯群島列為保護地,並將附近的吉爾伯特群島(即吉里巴斯)共同納入管理。

1916年:英國正式宣布吉爾伯特和埃利斯群島為直屬殖民地。

1942年至43年:二戰期間,吉爾伯特群島被日本佔領,埃利斯群島成立地方政府。這段期間,美國軍隊亦登陸埃利斯群島,並在富那富提、Nanumea及Nukufetau三個島嶼上,建設空軍基地。

1974年8月:埃利斯群島進行全民公投,人口的百分之九十以上同意與吉爾伯特分離。

1975年10月:埃利斯群島恢復舊稱吐瓦魯,成為單獨的英國領地。吉爾伯特和埃利斯群島殖民地副總督成為負責吐瓦魯國的皇家委員。吐瓦魯國眾議院同時設立;眾議院的八位成員推選托阿利波·勞蒂(Toaripi Lauti)為首長。

1976年1月:吐瓦魯與吉爾伯特群島正式分離。

1977年8月29日:吐瓦魯進行首次普選。

1978年10月1日:吐瓦魯宣布獨立。托阿利波·勞蒂成為總理,迪歐(Sir Fiatau Penitala Teo)成為總督,眾議院改名為國會。

1981年9月17日:托馬西·普瓦普瓦博士(Dr. Tomasi Puapua)被選為總理。

1985年9月:普瓦普瓦連任總理。

1986年2月:吐瓦魯公民參與調查;大多數公民表示應維持君主立憲政府,不贊成改為共和政體。

1986年3月1日:前議長劉賓納(Sir Tupua Leupena)被任命為總督。

1987年:英國、紐西蘭與澳洲共同設立吐瓦魯信託基金,以援助吐瓦魯開發。南韓與日本亦挹注資金於其中。

1989年:聯合國將吐國列為21世紀最有可能因全球暖化影響而消失的群島之一。

1989年9月27日:普選時,普瓦普瓦總理的支持者敗選;次月,比肯尼比尤·佩紐(Bikenibeu Paeniu)被選為總理。

1990年10月1日:勞蒂接替劉賓納的總督職位。

1993年10月1日:希歐內(Sir Tomu Sione)被任命為總督。

1993年12月10日:1993年11月普選後,佩紐總理敗選;卡穆塔·拉塔西(Kamuta Latasi)被選為總理。

1994年6月21日:孟努歐拉(Sir Tulaga Manuella)成為總督。

1996年12月23日:國會通過不信任動議後,前總理佩紐取代現任總理拉塔西,宣布新內閣名單。

1998年:吐國將其付費電話號碼租給外國公司。

Office of Tuvalu Telecom. Photo Credit: lirneasia (cc-by-2.0)

Office of Tuvalu Telecom. Photo Credit: lirneasia (cc-by-2.0)

1998年3月26日:普選時,十二位議員的其中五位連續當選。新國會再度任命佩紐為總理。

1998年6月26日:普瓦普瓦被任命為總督。

1999年4月:國會通過不信任動議後,佩紐總理辭職總理職位。稍後,前衛生、教育、文化、婦女及社會事務部長艾奧納塔納·艾奧納塔納(Ionatana Ionatana)成為總理。

2000年2月:吐國將國家頂級域名租給美國公司。

2000年9月5日:吐國成為聯合國會員國。

2000年12月8日:艾奧納塔納總理過世後,副總理拉吉圖普·圖伊利穆(Lagitupu Tuilimu)被任命為代理總理。

2001年2月24日:內政與城鄉建設部長法伊馬拉加·盧卡(Faimalaga Luka)被選為總理,並負責外交、財政與經濟計劃及貿易與貿易計畫等事宜。

2001年3月:吐國、吉里巴斯與馬爾地夫群島宣布將因美國拒絕簽署京都議定書,而對美國採取法律行動。

2001年10月:吐國政府宣布,由於海平面上升之威脅,吐國居民將撤出該群島。紐西蘭同意接受每年配額的撤離者。

Tuvalu Meteorology Service. Photo Credit: Davidarfonjones (cc-by-sa3.0; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/legalcode)

Tuvalu Meteorology Service. Photo Credit: Davidarfonjones (cc-by-sa3.0; http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/legalcode)

2001年12月:澳洲政府透過海外援助計畫建立吐國陸地與海平面觀測站。

2001年12月14日:考魯阿·塔雷克(Koloa Talake)被選為總理。

2002年8月24日:薩烏法圖·索本嘉(Saufatu Sopoanga)被選為總理。

2003年9月9日:盧卡被任命為總督。

2004年8月 27日:國會通過不信任動議後,推選馬蒂亞·托阿法(Maatia Toafa)為總理。

2005年4月15日:特里托(Sir Filoimea Telito)被任命為總督。

2006年8月14日:阿皮塞·耶雷米亞(Apisai Ielemia)被選為總理。

2009年12月:吐國表示因哥本哈根氣候協議規定不夠嚴格,而不認同該協議。

2010年3月19日:拉塔西成為代理總督。

2010年4月16日:依塔雷理(Sir Iakoba Italeli)被任命為總督。

2010年6月24日:吐國成為國際貨幣基金組織與世界銀行集團的第187個成員國。

2010年9月29日:馬蒂亞·托阿法被再度選為總理。

2010年12月24日:威利·特拉維(Willy Telavi)接替托阿法總理的總理職位。

2011年10月:吐瓦魯政府因全國乾旱缺水宣布進入緊急狀態;吐國呼籲世界各國協助替換吐國海水淡化系統及提供永久性飲水箱。

2013年8月1日:因特拉維總理未召開國會長達八個月,而遭總督撤除。總督任命埃內爾·索本嘉(Enele Sopoaga)接替特拉維的總理職位。

2013年8月5日:埃內爾·索本嘉正式宣誓就職。

2014年3月:吐瓦魯宣布不承認備受爭議的阿布哈茲及南奧塞提亞是獨立國家。

2014年12月:吐瓦魯與立陶宛共和國正式建交。

2015年3月10日:吐瓦魯遭熱帶氣旋帕姆肆虐,大量居民必須遷移至避難所中。吐瓦魯政府宣布進入緊急狀態。

2015年3月26日:吐瓦魯與沙烏地阿拉伯正式建交。

2015年3月31日:普選後,吐瓦魯十五位前任議員中的十二位重新當選議員。

2015年4月10日:吐瓦魯新內閣正式宣誓就職,埃內爾·索本嘉連任總理。

2015年5月4日:吐瓦魯與波蘭正式建交。