語言: 英文 / 中文

Tuvalu, National Development,
and the Perils of Climate Change

This page addresses challenges Tuvalu faces regarding size, accessibility, economic infrastructure, and topography; explains the uniquely severe and detrimental effects that climate change has and will continue to have on Tuvalu; and introduces the path Tuvalu has taken to draft climate change policies in keeping with its national strategies for sustainable development. 


CHALLENGES TUVALU FACES REGARDING SIZE, ACCESSIBILITY, ECONOMIC INFRASTRUCTURE, AND TOPOGRAPHY

SIZE   

Tuvalu is the fourth smallest nation and second smallest developing nation in the world.  The country commands a landmass of 26 square kilometers, and, according to the 2002 census, a population of 9,561 people live on the nine islands that constitute the country.  Although Tuvalu’s landmass is extremely small, the nine islands that make up Tuvalu are spread over 900,000 square kilometers of the western Pacific, which suggests the problems of inter-island transportation and communication encountered in the nation because the country’s extremely small population is dispersed over a large area.  Additionally, Funafuti, which is the capital of Tuvalu, contains 58% of Tuvalu’s total population or 4,492 people, whereas the second most populous island, Vaitupu, contains only 16.5% of the population or 1,591 people.  Consequently, although Tuvalu is a small country with a limited population, the people of Tuvalu are often separated from each other by wide stretches of sea, and, whereas the capital is facing problems of overpopulation and even over-development, the other eight islands constituting Tuvalu are exposed to slowed development and manpower shortages.

ACCESSIBILITY  

Inter-island transportation among Funafuti and the outer eight islands of Tuvalu is provided by inter-island boat services, but several hours or days are required to travel among the islands and conditions are frequently marked by discomfort and seasickness.  International transportation also proves extremely challenging.  Direct flights to Tuvalu are available only from the nation of Fiji and depart only twice a week, which leads to substantial backlog and waiting lists during busier travel seasons such as the summer.  Furthermore, due to the small size of Tuvalu’s one international airport, the largest plane that can land in Tuvalu only seats approximately 40 people, which exacerbates problems of securing transportation between Tuvalu and other nations.

From a communications standpoint, because Funafuti is the capital of Tuvalu, the majority of the nation’s administrative offices are located in the Funafuti atoll.  Funafuti possesses regular telephone service and maintains its connection to Tuvalu’s other eight islands via postal services and radiophone.  However, although Internet services have been available in Tuvalu since 1999, accessing the Internet remains difficult for the average citizen, with Internet cafes supplying Internet facilities for the majority of the population and only government offices possessing more stable Internet connections.  

Consequently, aside from its small size both in terms of population and landmass, Tuvalu also encounters numerous difficulties regarding accessibility to transportation and communication services, which substantially affects Tuvaluans’ access to citizens on islands other than their own, as well as their access to the international community.  Naturally, this phenomenon also influences the goods and services available to Tuvalu, restricting access to products that may be easily located in other countries.

ECONOMIC INFRASTRUCTURE

Largely due to the issues of size and accessibility described above, Tuvalu’s economy has been slow to develop and is small, fragmented, and highly vulnerable to external economic influences.  As a result, the government and people of Tuvalu have established several innovative strategies to increase revenues.  For example, the government has developed the Tuvalu Maritime Training Institute to train young men to work as seafarers on foreign ships, which has allowed these men to generate income that can be transferred to their families in Tuvalu via remittances.  Tuvalu has also successfully marketed not only its national stamps and coins, but also its Internet domain name suffix “.tv,” which created substantial revenue during the late 1990s because “tv” is the shortened form of the English word “television.”  Additionally, although Tuvalu’s landmass is limited, its sea territories are quite vast.  Thus, Tuvalu also utilizes the annual sale of fishing licenses to foreign vessels as a means of amassing annual revenue.  Finally, with the assistance of diplomatic allies and international organizations, Tuvalu's central and local government bodies have established two trust funds, that is, the Tuvalu Trust Fund and the Falekaupule Trust Fund, to bolster Tuvalu’s national budget as well as the operations of Tuvalu’s eight outer islands.

Tuvalu Trust Fund Office

Tuvalu Trust Fund Office

Despite these innovative actions on the part of the government, however, Tuvalu possesses few exports and no land-based natural resources, and semi-subsistence farming and fishing are its primary economic activities.  Unfortunately, because the nine islands constituting Tuvalu are composed of infertile and low-quality soil and no fresh water aquifers exist, farming activities can only be conducted on a limited basis.  Consequently, Tuvalu is heavily reliant on imports and outside development assistance to ensure the well-being of the local people, and, because of accessibility problems, although Tuvalu possesses spectacular scenery and pristine beaches, an average of fewer than 1,000 tourists visit Tuvalu annually.  

TOPOGRAPHY

Although the topics discussed above illustrate challenges that have influenced Tuvalu’s national development and can explain why climate change might present a more unique and severe challenge to Tuvalu than to many other countries, topography most clearly demonstrates the dire threat climate change, and sea level rise in particular, poses to Tuvalu.

Aerial view of Tuvalu’s capital, Funafuti, 2011. Tuvalu is a remote country of low lying atolls, making it vulnerable to climate change. Photo Credit: Lily-Anne Homasi/DFAT (cc-by-2.0)

Aerial view of Tuvalu’s capital, Funafuti, 2011. Tuvalu is a remote country of low lying atolls, making it vulnerable to climate change. Photo Credit: Lily-Anne Homasi/DFAT (cc-by-2.0)

The major topographical characteristic of Tuvalu is that all of the land belonging to the nation is “low-lying.”  This means that no mountains occur naturally in Tuvalu and that all of Tuvalu’s islands are less than five meters above mean sea level.  However, it is imperative to note that, although some areas in Tuvalu reach four or five meters above sea level, the majority of the population lives less than one meter above sea level, bringing Tuvaluan citizens into direct contact with the ocean almost every day of their lives.  In addition to this and as mentioned earlier, the landmass of Tuvalu is exceedingly limited and each of the nine islands constituting Tuvalu are extremely narrow.  For example, the population of Fongafale, Funafuti, where nearly half of the country’s population is concentrated, is on average less than 100 meters wide, making it extremely vulnerable to inundation from sea level rise.  As a result, sea level rise is a direct threat to the lives, assets, and ecosystems of Tuvalu, and the sea level need only increase one meter to displace the majority of citizens from their homes.

The problem of Tuvalu’s topography and the threat of sea level rise to the low-lying land of Tuvalu has been further exacerbated by the fact that, during World War II, much of the landmass of Tuvalu was excavated and forests and mangroves destroyed when U.S. troops constructed airbases on Funafuti, Nanumea, and Nukufetau.  Consequently, Tuvalu is now not only threatened by overland ocean flooding, but sea water has also begun to seep and bubble up from below the islands of Tuvalu, leading to the increased threat of flooding from both above and below.  

Environment Office—Funafuti, Tuvalu

Environment Office—Funafuti, Tuvalu

INFLUENCES CLIMATE CHANGE HAS HAD AND WILL HAVE ON TUVALU 

The effects of climate change on Tuvalu became evident beginning in 1950, but, in some cases, these impacts appeared even earlier in the nation’s history.  For example, the maximum temperature in Funafuti has increased at a rate of 0.21°C per decade since 1950, which is consistent with patterns for global warming and climate change.  Additionally, between 1950 and 2009, rates of relative sea-level rise near Funafuti were approximately three times higher than the global average while ocean acidification levels have been slowly increasing in Tuvalu’s waters since the 18th century.

Thus, it is apparent that climate change already affects Tuvalu in terms of increases in temperatures, sea levels, and ocean acidification levels.  The most recent report released by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has further suggested the extreme effects climate change will have on Tuvalu into the future. 

SEA LEVEL RISE

First, the IPCC report suggests that sea levels will rise in the range of 0.5 meters to one meter by the year 2100.  Because Tuvalu’s land territories are all less than five meters above sea level and the majority of Tuvalu’s population lives less than one meter above sea level, if the IPCC’s findings are accurate, the majority of Tuvalu’s populated land will be submerged by 2100.

Due to the increased rates of sea level rise, not only will the low-lying areas of Funafuti and other Tuvaluan islands be exposed to more frequent and extensive saltwater flooding, but Tuvalu’s agricultural activities, as well as the already limited water supplies in the country, will also be severely affected.  To describe a specific example, Tuvalu once relied heavily on growing pulaka, a type of taro, to maintain agricultural self-sufficiency.  Now, due to sea level rise, the swampy areas of islands where pulaka is farmed have increased in salinity and citizens are unable to successfully raise this crop.  As a result, the people of Tuvalu can no longer depend on pulaka to replenish their food supplies and are forced to instead import large amounts of rice to sustain their daily diet. 

Cyclone Keli

Cyclone Keli

Coral Bleaching

Coral Bleaching

SEVERE WEATHER EVENTS AND CORAL REEFS

The IPCC has also predicted that, due to the effects of climate change, severe weather events will soon begin to threaten Tuvalu with increased frequency.  For example, cyclones and droughts will become more commonplace and are some of the first serious effects of climate change Tuvalu will witness in the near term.  Unfortunately, the effects of climate change are also presently destroying and will continue to destroy life forms including coral that have, in the past, naturally protected Tuvalu from severe weather events like cyclones.

To give an example, increases in water temperature directly result in extreme coral bleaching phenomena, during which marine-life such as algae that grow within coral die out as temperatures reach excessively high levels.  As a result, coral turns white—hence the term “coral bleaching”—and if high temperatures persist, the coral itself dies.  In addition, ocean acidification is currently threatening coral and shellfish with calcium carbonate components such as clams, mussels, and snails.  Ocean acidification is another consequence of climate change, in which high levels of carbon dioxide that now exist in the atmosphere because of greenhouse gas emissions result in higher levels of CO2 being dissolved in the ocean. Higher CO2 levels in the ocean contribute to the increasing acidity of ocean waters and threaten to dissolve the calcium carbonate components of certain marine creatures because CO2-rich habitats make calcium carbonate erode faster than it can grow.  Because, in the near future, severe weather events will occur with greater frequency at exactly the same time that naturally protective life forms like coral experience accelerated rates of decay, the destructive force of severe weather events will increase exponentially, threatening both the people and land of Tuvalu.  

RISING TEMPERATURES

Finally, the Pacific Climate Change Science Program has developed several projections that indicate that average annual air and sea surface temperatures for Tuvalu have been increasing and will continue to increase in the future.  Under a high emissions scenario, temperature increases that will occur by 2030 are projected to be in the range of 0.4°C to 1.0°C, and will be accompanied by an increase in the number of hot days and warm nights and a decline in cooler weather.  These temperature changes will not only lead to the increased severity of coral bleaching phenomena and affect the protections against severe weather events that coral reefs afford to Tuvalu, but will also reduce agricultural and marine resources, accelerate the evaporation of water from soil, and pose a direct threat to the health of local citizens. 

TUVALU’S CLIMATE CHANGE POLICIES: TE KAKEEGA II TO TE KANIVA AND THE TUVALU NATIONAL STRATEGIC ACTION PLAN FOR CLIMATE CHANGE AND DISASTER RISK MANAGEMENT

Because the above effects of climate change have tremendous implications for the well-being and survival of the Tuvaluan people, Tuvalu has been cited as one of the most vulnerable countries to the influences of climate change and sea level rise.  In the face of such an imminent threat, the Government of Tuvalu has currently developed the Te Kaniva Tuvalu Climate Change Policy 2012 and the Tuvalu National Strategic Action Plan for Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management (2012-2016) to combat the various dangers caused by climate change.  In formulating these measures, the government has sought not only to ensure that all policies related to climate change dovetail with Tuvalu’s current sustainable development strategy, but has also sought to guarantee that these measures enhance adaptation and mitigation for climate change and address the risks Tuvalu faces as a result of this threat.

Tuvalu’s current national strategy for sustainable development, which covers the period from 2005 to 2015, is entitled Te Kakeega II, and was approved by Tuvalu’s Parliament in November of 2005.  Environmental issues and strategies for combating climate change are considered crucial to the success of Tuvalu’s sustainable development, and Strategy 11.4 within Te Kakeega II delineates key policy directives regarding the environment and specifically highlights Tuvalu’s initiative to “establish national climate change adaptation and mitigation policies.”  In response to this goal, the Government of Tuvalu has developed and promoted the Te Kaniva Tuvalu Climate Change Policy 2012 (TCCP) and the Tuvalu National Strategic Action Plan for Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management (NSAP).  These policies are a direct method by which to achieve Te Kakeega II goals and objectives and thereby contribute to Tuvalu’s sustainable development.

The TCCP and NSAP were developed using identical methodologies and designed for simultaneous implementation, but were created as separate entities to more clearly highlight the theoretical and practical aspects of Tuvalu’s national response to climate change.  Consequently, whereas the TCCP outlines Tuvalu’s vision and sweeping strategic policies for combating climate change over the period extending from 2012 to 2021, the NSAP represents the government’s plan for implementing the TCCP and more practically defines the manner in which the TCCP should be realized in all aspects of Tuvaluan life over the five-year period from 2012 to 2016.

The vision of the TCCP is “to protect Tuvalu’s status as a nation and its cultural identity and to build its capacity to ensure a safe, resilient and prosperous future.”  The seven thematic goals inherent to the policy are as follows:

Goal 1: Strengthening Adaptation Actions to Address Current and Future Vulnerabilities 

Goal 2: Improving Understanding and Application of Climate Change Data, Information and Site Specific Impacts Assessment to Inform Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction Programmes 

Goal 3: Enhancing Tuvalu’s Governance Arrangements and Capacity to Access and Manage Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management Finances   

Goal 4: Developing and Maintaining Tuvalu’s Infrastructures to Withstand Climate Change Impacts, Climate Variability, Disaster Risks and Climate Change Projection 

Goal 5: Ensuring Energy Security and a Low Carbon Future for Tuvalu

Goal 6: Planning for Effective Disaster Preparedness, Response and Recovery       

Goal 7: Guaranteeing the Security of the People of Tuvalu from the Impacts of Climate Change and the Maintenance of National Sovereignty   

  

 

Language: English / Chinese

吐瓦魯之發展與氣候變遷危機

此單元說明吐瓦魯因面積與人口、交通通訊問題、經濟基礎建設,以及地形等問題而面臨的種種發展上的困難,並解釋氣候變遷對吐瓦魯所造成之嚴重影響,並且討論吐瓦魯如何研擬氣候變遷政策以符合其永續發展策略。


吐瓦魯因面積與人口、交通通訊問題、經濟基礎建設,以及地形等問題而面臨的種種發展上的困難

面積與人口

吐瓦魯為世界上第四小的國家,同時是發展中國家當中第二小的國家。吐瓦魯面積僅達二十六平方公里,根據2002年人口普查,共有九千五百六十一人居住在組成吐瓦魯國土的九個小島上。雖然吐瓦魯陸地面積極小,但吐瓦魯九個小島散佈於吐瓦魯九十萬平方公里的廣大海域中,意味著吐瓦魯面臨著島與島之間的交通及通訊問題。此外,吐瓦魯人口之百分之五十八(即四千四百九十二人)居住於該國首都富那富提,但人口第二多之島嶼斐伊托波之人口只佔吐瓦魯總人口之百分之十六點五(即一千五百九十一人)。因此,吐瓦魯雖是人口極少之小島嶼國家,但其人民因島嶼間距離遙遠而難以維持穩定交流;且吐瓦魯首都在面臨人口過剩與過度開發等問題的同時,其他八個島嶼正面臨著緩慢發展、缺乏人力等困境。

交通通訊問題

吐瓦魯首都富那富提與其餘八個島嶼之間之交通由少數海上交通服務公司提供。不過,島與島之間的航程往往需要耗費數小時至數天的時間才可抵達,通常會造成身體不適、暈船等問題。不僅島與島之間交通非常困難,吐瓦魯與其他國家之間之交通同樣不便。只有斐濟能直飛吐瓦魯,但斐濟與吐瓦魯之間的飛機一個禮拜只有四個班次。因此,到了夏天的旅遊旺季時,搭上往來斐吐之間的班機非常困難,航空公司亦經常需要安排候補名單。此外,吐瓦魯唯一的國際機場相當小,四十人座以上的飛機該機場都無法容納,使吐瓦魯與國外之間的交通問題更形嚴重。

從通訊的角度來說,因為富那富提為吐瓦魯首都,所以大多數吐瓦魯政府行政辦公大樓都位於該島上。富那富提擁有較穩定的電話服務,並能透過郵政服務及無線電話與吐瓦魯其他八個島嶼保持聯繫。1999年以來,吐瓦魯雖然擁有網路服務,但一般民眾想要享受穩定的網路服務並不容易。一般來說,大多數民眾上網路咖啡廳取得網路服務,但只有政府辦公大樓才能定期且穩定地連線到網路。

因此,除了吐瓦魯人口極少面積極小等問題之外,吐國還面臨許多交通通訊相關之困難。這些困難不僅限制了吐瓦魯的島對島聯繫,亦縮小了吐瓦魯與國際社會之交流空間。此現象亦影響了商務流通的機會,使吐瓦魯難以享受到在其他國家容易取得的商品。

經濟基礎建設

由於受到前述問題的限制,吐瓦魯經濟發展緩慢、經濟體狹小分散,且容易受到外在經濟因素之影響。因此,吐瓦魯政府與人民建立許多創新之策略以增加吐瓦魯收入來源。例如,吐國政府設立吐瓦魯海事訓練學校,以訓練吐瓦魯船員上外國船隻打工,為船員製造收入來源以補貼家用。此外,吐瓦魯亦成功地打開其郵票及硬幣銷售市場,還將國家頂級域名「.tv」租給美國公司,於90年代末增加不少收入。再者,雖然吐瓦魯面積極少,但其海域非常大因此吐瓦魯每年銷售捕魚執照給外國船隻以提高年度收入。最後,吐瓦魯國政府、吐瓦魯島嶼級政府以及友邦與國際組織亦建立兩種信託基金--吐瓦魯信託基金與吐瓦魯外島信託基金,提升吐瓦魯政府年度預算以及維持吐瓦魯外島之穩定運作。

吐瓦魯信託基金辦公大樓

吐瓦魯信託基金辦公大樓

雖然吐瓦魯政府之經濟策略非常具有創新價值,但吐瓦魯仍然無法克服其先天限制如出口量過小、缺乏陸地資源,且僅由半自給農業與漁業支撐著。更不幸的是,由於吐瓦魯之九個小島嶼土壤貧瘠且缺乏淡水層,因此農業活動非常有限。因此,吐瓦魯依賴進口商品以及外國援助以確保一般民眾能過正常的生活。此外,由於交通通訊之問題,儘管吐瓦魯有潔白無瑕的海灘與鬼斧神工的風景,每年赴吐瓦魯之觀光客仍不到一千人次。

地形

上述三段描述了有哪些負面因素正在影響吐瓦魯之發展,又呈現了氣候變遷為何對吐瓦魯所造成的影響可能比對其他國家所造成的影響嚴重,但吐瓦魯之地形限制最清楚地呈現出氣候變遷(尤其是海平面上升的問題)之所以對吐瓦魯造成威脅的根本原因。

Aerial view of Tuvalu’s capital, Funafuti, 2011. Tuvalu is a remote country of low lying atolls, making it vulnerable to climate change. Photo Credit: Lily-Anne Homasi/DFAT (cc-by-2.0)

Aerial view of Tuvalu’s capital, Funafuti, 2011. Tuvalu is a remote country of low lying atolls, making it vulnerable to climate change. Photo Credit: Lily-Anne Homasi/DFAT (cc-by-2.0)

吐瓦魯主要地形特色是全國領土都呈現低海拔地區之特性。因此,吐瓦魯無山丘其最高處不超出海拔五公尺。此外,雖然吐瓦魯最高處達五公尺,但吐瓦魯大多數人口居住於海拔一公尺以下之地區,使吐瓦魯民眾幾乎每天都必須與海域有近距離接觸。此外,吐瓦魯面積極小,吐瓦魯九個島嶼亦非常狹長。例如,富那富提群島中之豐迦法利島之平均寬度未到一百公尺,使該地區易受海平面上升之影響。因此,海平面上升對吐瓦魯之民眾、資產與生態系統所造成的威脅非常嚴重,海平面只需上升一公尺,吐瓦魯大多數民眾就會被迫遷離家園。

此外,吐瓦魯之所以因地形及海平面上升所遭遇的問題比他國更加嚴重,就是因為第二次世界大戰,美軍於富那富提、那努米亞以及奴谷斐陶建設空軍基地時,挖掘吐瓦魯許多土地及破壞其森林與紅樹林。因此,到目前為止,吐瓦魯不僅遭遇洪災,海水亦開始從吐瓦魯許多島嶼下方大量湧出,導致雙重淹水危機。

環保局(富那富提)

環保局(富那富提)

氣候變遷對吐瓦魯所造成之影響

1950年以來,氣候變遷對吐瓦魯的影響相當明顯,但此影響亦在吐瓦魯更早的歷史中已出現。例如,1950年以來,富那富提之最高溫度每十年增加0.21°C;該現象與全球暖化與氣候變遷趨勢相符。此外,從1950年至2009年,吐瓦魯首都富那富提的相對海平面上升速度是全球平均速度的三倍,但從十八世紀以來,吐瓦魯附近之海洋酸化現象已呈現緩慢增加趨勢。

顯然,氣候變遷已導致吐瓦魯附近之溫度、海平面以及海洋酸化程度增加。最近出版的政府間氣候變化專門委員會(IPCC)報告亦提到,未來氣候變遷對吐瓦魯之影響將越來越嚴重。

海平面上升

首先,IPCC報告預測,在2100年前海平面將增加五十到一百公分。由於吐瓦魯地勢最高處不超出海拔五公尺、大多數民眾都居住在低於海拔一公尺之處,若IPCC所預測的結果發生,2100年前,吐瓦魯人口最稠密之處將因為海水之侵入而消失。

在海平面加速上升的情況之下,海水侵入對富那富提及吐瓦魯其他島嶼低海拔地區之威脅不僅將越來越嚴重,亦將嚴重影響吐瓦魯淡水供應以及農業運作。例如,之前,吐瓦魯以生長於沼澤地的芋頭(當地稱做pulaka)維持其農業自給性。但因為海平面上升所造成之影響,「pulaka」生長之沼澤地區鹽度增加,民眾不再能順利栽培此植物。因此,吐瓦魯之人民無法以「pulaka」作為主要糧食供應來源,必須進口大量米飯維持適當日常飲食量。

熱帶氣旋凱利

熱帶氣旋凱利

珊瑚礁白化

珊瑚礁白化

 

極端惡劣天氣與珊瑚礁

IPCC亦預測,由於氣候變遷的影響,極端惡劣天氣將在不久的未來更加惡化,對吐瓦魯之影響將越來越嚴重。例如,氣旋與旱災將越來越普遍,而將形成在不久將來對吐瓦魯最嚴重之威脅。不幸的是,雖然在極端惡劣天氣發生時,珊瑚礁是可以為吐瓦魯抵禦惡劣氣候影響的一道屏障,但氣候變遷之影響亦已開始破壞珊瑚等生物的生態。

例如,海水溫度不斷增高會使珊瑚白化之狀況更加嚴重。海水溫度增高時,生存在珊瑚礁裡面的海洋生物(藻類)會逐漸地消失。因此,珊瑚礁失去原本的顏色,變成骨白色。如果海水的溫度持續升高,珊瑚礁會失去營養供應而死亡。此外,氣候變遷亦造成了海洋酸化的現象。此現象亦威脅到珊瑚及有鈣質殼房之蛤蜊、蠔海螺等生物的生存。因為溫室氣體的影響,大氣中的二氧化碳量不斷增加,同時海洋中二氧化碳含量自然也會升高海洋對二氧化碳的吸收會改變海水的化學性質,造成海洋酸化,亦因為二氧化碳含量高之環境易使有鈣質殼房生物之消蝕速度超過其成長速度,造成這些生物面臨消失的危機。在未來,在極端惡劣天氣變得越來越頻繁之同時,珊瑚等有助於抵禦此惡劣氣候之生物將快速消失。因此,極端惡劣天氣之影響將愈發惡化,威脅吐瓦魯之人民與土地安全。

溫度增高

最後,太平洋氣候變遷科學計畫組織最近做出預測,顯示在未來吐瓦魯每年平均空氣溫度與海平面溫度將持續增加。在溫室氣體排放量高的情況下,2030年前,溫度將增加0.4至1.0°C,而燠熱天氣的日數亦將增加、涼爽天氣的日數將減少。此變化不僅將使珊瑚白化現象更加嚴重、讓珊瑚礁失去其抵禦惡劣天氣之保護能力,亦將減少農業與海洋資源、加快水資源自土壤蒸發之速度,並造成衛生與健康問題。

吐瓦魯氣候變遷政策:從「TE KAKEEGA II」到「TE KANIVA」與吐瓦魯氣候變遷及災害風險管理策略性行動計畫

由於上述之氣候變遷因素與吐瓦魯人民之福祉與生存能力息息相關,在全球所有國家中,吐瓦魯被認為是受氣候變遷與海平面上升影響最鉅的國家。為了降低此危機將造成的傷害,吐瓦魯政府已研擬「Te Kaniva:2012年吐瓦魯氣候變遷政策」以及「吐瓦魯氣候變遷及災害風險管理策略性行動計畫(2012年至2016年)」。訂定這些政策時,吐瓦魯政府不僅試圖使氣候變遷政策符合吐瓦魯永續發展策略,亦欲確保這些政策能提升吐瓦魯適應並減緩氣候變遷之能力,使吐瓦魯能不畏環境挑戰,勇於面對氣候變遷的危機

吐瓦魯目前所採取之永續發展策略稱作「Te Kakeega II」;「Te Kakeega II」之時間範圍為2005年至2015年,由吐瓦魯國會於2005年11月審核通過。環保議題與對抗氣候變遷之策略為永續發展策略不可或缺的一環。「Te Kakeega II」之第11條第4項敘述吐瓦魯環保方面之重要方針,特別強調吐瓦魯必須「研擬適應及減緩氣候變遷之政策」。因此,為了呼應此目標,吐瓦魯國政府訂定並推廣「Te Kaniva:2012年吐瓦魯氣候變遷政策」以及「吐瓦魯氣候變遷及災害風險管理策略性行動計畫」。兩種政策試圖達成「Te Kakeega II」所提到之環保目標,並對吐瓦魯永續發展做出貢獻。

吐瓦魯政府研擬「Te Kaniva:2012年吐瓦魯氣候變遷政策」以及「吐瓦魯氣候變遷及災害風險管理策略性行動計畫」時採用同樣的方法論,時間上這兩個政策也需要同時並行才能成功。不過,雖然這兩個政策具有相同之處,但吐國政府決定訂定兩種不同政策,以便更清楚地呈現出吐瓦魯對抗氣候變遷之理論背景與實際策略。因此,「Te Kaniva」描述吐瓦魯從2012年到2021年對抗氣候變遷的宗旨與宏觀政策,而「吐瓦魯氣候變遷及災害風險管理策略性行動計畫」作為政府對於施行「Te Kaniva」所做的計畫,界定了從2012年到2016年「Te Kaniva」該如何實現於吐瓦魯人民生活中的各個面向。

「Te Kaniva」的宗旨為「維護吐瓦魯文化與獨立國家定位,以及提升人民之專業能力,以在未來維持國家治安、繁榮與復原能力。」該政策七個主題性目標條列如下:

目標1:強化適應策略以面對及解決氣候變遷目前與未來將造成的影響

目標2:提升理解應用氣候變遷資料與因地制宜的環境影響評估之能力以提升「適應氣候變遷與降低災害風險計畫」之知識基礎

目標3:強化吐瓦魯治理制度與專業能力,以取得並管理氣候變遷及災害風險管理基金

目標4:發展並維護吐瓦魯基礎建設,以對抗氣候變遷之影響、氣候變異性及災害風險

目標5:確保吐瓦魯之能源安全,使吐瓦魯能邁向未來的低碳生活       

目標6:訂定有效之災害預防、應變及復原措施   

目標7:在氣候變遷影響下,確保吐瓦魯人民之安全並維護國家主權