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Tuvalu Profile

Beach of Funafuti Atoll. Photo Credit: mrlins (cc-by-2.0)

Beach of Funafuti Atoll. Photo Credit: mrlins (cc-by-2.0)

Basic Information

Tuvalu is an island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean. The country is situated in the Southern Hemisphere between latitudes 5° and 11° south and longitudes 176° and 180°, and it comprises three reef islands and six true atolls.

Time Zone

GMT+12

Area

26 square kilometers

Country Code

+668

Neighboring Countries

The Solomon Islands are located to the west of Tuvalu, Vanuatu to the southwest, Nauru to the northwest, Kiribati to the north, Tonga and Samoa to the southeast, and Fiji to the south.

Currency

Australian dollar

Climate

Tuvalu has a hot and humid tropical marine climate. At its hottest, the country can reach 45°C and at its coldest 20°C, but the temperature usually remains between 27°C and 33°C throughout the year. Annual rainfall is between 3,000 and 3,500 mm. The Northeast Trade Winds affect the nation every year between March and October, and, during this period, the temperature is cool. From November to February, strong winds and heavy rains buffet the area and hurricanes or strong winds occur. This presents a significant threat to the welfare and property of those who live in the nation.

Terrain

Tuvalu is composed of nine islands among which six are atolls. The nine islands are distributed in a shell-like shape, the surface area of the nation is a mere 25.9 square kilometers, and no mountains or rivers occur naturally. The highest point on the island is only 4 meters above sea level and the shoreline is constantly subjected to coastal erosion. Consequently, the citizens of Tuvalu are active in their protection of the shoreline and are highly concerned regarding climate change and rising sea levels.

 
Government Office Building in Funafuti. Photo Credit: lirneasia (cc-by-2.0)

Government Office Building in Funafuti. Photo Credit: lirneasia (cc-by-2.0)

Politics

Government System

Constitutional monarchy

Capital

Funafuti

Date of Independence

Tuvalu became fully independent within the Commonwealth of Nations on 1 October 1978.

Executive Branch

In Tuvalu, the Queen of England is the head of state but the Governor-General exercises authority on behalf of the Queen. Additionally, Tuvalu adopts a British cabinet system, and the cabinet consists of members selected from the majority group in parliament. The majority group in parliament also selects a prime minister from among themselves and parliament is responsible for subsequently confirming this prime minister. The prime minister is the head of cabinet, manages the government, and maintains authority over government affairs.

Legislative Branch

Tuvalu has a unicameral parliament. The citizens of Tuvalu engage in a general election during which 15 members of parliament are chosen through respective electorates. Additionally, members of parliament elect a speaker from among themselves, and a two-thirds majority is required for the successful election of the speaker. Tuvalu does not have an official party structure and members of parliament unite at their discretion to form political groups. The majority is the group in office and the minority is the opposition.

Judicial Branch

Officials in Tuvalu’s judicial system can be divided into three basic levels: island-court judges, the Resident Magistrate of Tuvalu, and the Chief Justice of the High Court of Tuvalu. Island courts represent the local courts of Tuvalu. If the judges presiding over these courts (who are typically Tuvaluan) cannot reach a definitive decision on a certain case or if the decision delivered for a certain case is challenged, the case is referred to the Resident Magistrate of Tuvalu, who is typically Tuvaluan and presides over cases in Funafuti, the capital of Tuvalu. If a case is challenged at the Magistrate level, it will be referred to the Chief Justice of the High Court of Tuvalu, who is selected by the government of the day and is frequently not a citizen of Tuvalu but travels to the nation when a hearing is necessary.

Current Governor-General

Sir Iakoba Taeia Italeli (16 April 2010-Present)

Current Prime Minister

Enele Sosene Sopoaga (1 August 2013-Present)

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Demographics

Total Population 

10,837 (2012)

Population Growth Rate

0.702% (2011)

Average Life Expectancy 

62.7 years for men and 66.9 years for women (2011)

Literacy Rate

99.0% (2002)

Religion

According to statistics reported in 2007, 91% of the Tuvaluan people are Christian and worship at the Church of Tuvalu, 3% are Seventh-day Adventist, another 3% are Baha’i, 2% are Jehovah’s Witnesses, and 1% are Roman Catholic. Reports also state that Muslims compose 3% of the population.

Language

Although English is the official language of Tuvalu and is used throughout the country, the main language adopted in the nation is Tuvaluan, which can be used to communicate with people speaking Tongan and Samoan. Furthermore, people living on the Nui island in northern Tuvalu speak Kiribati as do a majority of Tuvaluans who were born when Tuvalu and Kiribati were united as the Gilbert and Ellice Islands from 1916 to 1974.

Economy

Gross Domestic Product

US$39,000,000 (2012)

Service Sector

56.2%

Industry Sector

27.2%

Agricultural Sector

16.6%

EXCHANGE RATE

US$1=AU$1.118193

Labor Force

3,615 (2004)

Total Exports

US$600,000 (2010)

Countries Receiving Exports from Tuvalu

  • Germany (56.8%)
  • Fiji (14.4%)
  • Italy (10.9%)
  • United Kingdom (7.7%)
  • Poland (4.9%)
  • Other (5.3%) (2004)
National Bank of Tuvalu in Funafuti. Photo Credit: lirneasia (cc-by-2.0)

National Bank of Tuvalu in Funafuti. Photo Credit: lirneasia (cc-by-2.0)

Transportation

Airports

1

International Airports

Funafuti International Airport (FUN)

Primary Modes of Transportation

Car and scooter

Primary Ports

Port of Funafuti

 

Language: English / Chinese

吐瓦魯簡介

Beach of Funafuti Atoll. Photo Credit: mrlins (cc-by-2.0)

Beach of Funafuti Atoll. Photo Credit: mrlins (cc-by-2.0)

基本資料

位置吐瓦魯是位於南太平洋的島國。

地理條件吐瓦魯國全境位於南半球,緯度從南緯5度至11 ,經度為176度到180度。

吐瓦魯時間格林威治漂準時間+12:00

面積26平方公里

國碼+668

邊境國家西方為索羅門群島;西南方有萬那杜;西北方為諾魯;北方為吉里巴斯;東南方為東加和薩摩亞;南方有斐濟。

氣候氣候屬溼熱海洋性熱帶氣候,最高溫度可達攝氏45度,最低溫約攝氏 20度,惟常年一般氣溫約介於攝氏27度至33度之間。全年雨量在3,0003,500毫米之間。每年3月至10月為東北貿易風季節,天氣較涼,11月至翌年2月為狂風暴雨季節,經常發生颶風或強風,對居民之生命或財產威脅甚大。

地形9個島礁群組成,其中6個為環狀珊瑚島Atoll。全國陸地面積僅25.9平方公里,無山丘河流,最高處不超出海拔四公尺,海岸常遭海水侵蝕,土地有減無增,因此吐國頗注意海岸線之維護,並極度關切溫室效應及海平面升高之問題。

貨幣單位澳洲幣

Government Office Building in Funafuti. Photo Credit: lirneasia (cc-by-2.0)

Government Office Building in Funafuti. Photo Credit: lirneasia (cc-by-2.0)

政治

政體類型君主立憲制國家

首都富那富提

獨立1978101日從英國統治下獨立。

行政奉英國女王為國家元首,並以總督代行女王職權。另仿行英式責任內閣制;內閣由國會執政派部分成員組成。由國會執政派相互推選產生總理,但總理也須透過國會所有議員認可方能取得政權。總理負責任命內閣部長,組成政府,實際掌握國政運作。

立法國會為一院制,由全民普選產生之15位國會議員組成,並互選產生議長一人;議長需有三分之二的票數支持方能產生。吐國並無正式政黨組織,國會議員間自行聯合組成政團,多數居執政派,少數居在野派。

司法吐瓦魯司法制度中的官員可分為島嶼法院(Island courts)法官、地方治安官、及高等法院首席法官三個等級。島嶼法院(Island courts)為吐國地方法院。島嶼法院法官經常是吐瓦魯國公民,並其審理案件時,若無法作出決定或判決產生爭議,該案件即由在吐國首都審理案件之地方治安官決定(治安官亦經常是吐瓦魯國公民)。若地方治安官的判決仍產生爭議,該案件由高等法院首席法官決定。首席法官由吐國政府選擇。首席法官經常不是吐國公民,審判案件時方至吐瓦魯作出裁決。

現任總督Sir Iakoba Taeia Italeli (2010416日上任至今)

現任總理Enele Sosene Sopoaga (2013年81日上任至今)

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人口統計

總人口10,837人(2012

人口成長率0.702%2011年)

平均壽命62.7歲(男性),66.9歲(女性)(2011年)

宗教根據2007年的統計,在吐瓦魯國人口中,91%是吐瓦魯教會教徒、3%是基督復臨安息日會教徒、3%是巴哈伊教徒、2%是耶和華見證人及1%是天主教徒。根據其他的相關資料穆斯林佔吐瓦魯國人口的3%

語言本地主要語言為吐瓦魯語,與東加語及薩摩亞語可相互溝通,英語為官方語言,通用於全國。居住於北方Nui島之居民則普遍使用吉里巴斯語;多數在吉耳貝特及艾利斯群島(1916年至1974年)尚未分為吐瓦魯與吉里巴斯兩國時長大之吐國公民,亦能使用吉里巴斯語。

識字率99.0%(2002年)

經濟

國內生產總值39百萬美元(2012年估計)

服務業56.2%

製造業27.2%

農 業16.6%

勞動力3,6152004年估計)

出口總值60萬美元(2010年估計)

出口對象德國(56.8%)、斐濟(14.4%)、義大利(10.9%)、英國(7.7%)、波蘭(4.9%)及其他(5.3.%)(2004年)

匯率1美元 =1.118193澳元

National Bank of Tuvalu in Funafuti. Photo Credit: lirneasia (cc-by-2.0)

National Bank of Tuvalu in Funafuti. Photo Credit: lirneasia (cc-by-2.0)

交通

機場1

國際機場富那富提國際機場(Funafuti International AirportFUN

主要大眾運輸工具汽車與機車

主要港口富那富提港口(Port of Funafuti